Juan Enriquez, 70, became known by his Muslim name, Yahya, after he converted to Islam in 2007. Here, he calls to Friday’s prayer in the mosque of Camagüey, which was built inside a private home to avoid problems with the Cuban authorities.

HAVANA, Dec. 27 The first time a pope ever set foot in Cuba was in 1998, when John Paul II traveled to the Communist state.

The visit was the result of a thaw between the Vatican and Cuba’s president, Fidel Castro, who banned religion in1959 when he seized power. Cuba’s majority-Catholic population welcomed the pontiff with great excitement; several hundred thousand people, including Castro, attended the Mass led by the pope in Havana.

Meanwhile, a small number of other Cubans drew their own conclusion from the regime’s growing tolerance of religion: Perhaps soon the state would increasingly accept Islam too.

The religion is now quietly growing in Cuba, where there are as many as 9,000 Muslims. While they represent a tiny segment of Cuba’s 11.3 million population, it’s a significant increase from roughly a dozen in the early 1990s. “The Communist Party has been making decisions to open up religious plurality,” says Michael Leo Owens, associate professor of political science at Emory University in Atlanta. “Islam will naturally grow.”

Because there isn’t a long legacy of Islam in Cuba, many of the island’s Muslims are converts who found the faith after speaking with students and diplomats visiting from Muslim-majority countries, says Joan Alvado, a photojournalist based in Barcelona, Spain.

Starting in 2014, Alvado has photographed the lives of Cuba’s Muslims, in the capital of Havana and around the country. Most recently, Alvado returned to Cuba, from early October to early November, to further explore this tiny culture, and his work is showcased here.


Yarima plays with Islamic prayer beads as her father, Ali, 33, holds her. Ali and his wife converted to Islam in 2014; Yarima is one of the first babies in Cuba born a Muslim.

Osman Reyes, one of Alvado’s subjects, converted to Islam in June 2015. He says the religion helped him to feel “more free,” according to Alvado. Reyes lives near the central Cuban city of Camaguey, where local Muslims established a humble mosque inside a private home in the early 2000s.

Despite being part of the fastest-growing religious group in the world—a Pew Research Center report estimates the world’s Muslim population will increase by 73 percent by 2050—Cuba’s Muslims can seem invisible, even to other Cubans. “No one in Havana, even my Cuban friends, knew that there were Muslims,” Alvado says.


Muslims gather in a new mosque in La Habana. The mosque, which opened in June of 2015, was built by the Arabia Saudi authorities in the Habana Vieja quarter, with the approval of the Cuban government.

Adapting to Islam has been a significant departure for Cubans, many of whom grew up eating pork and drinking alcohol. Most Cuban Muslims have adapted gradually. A lack of experts or imams to guide their way has meant that old traditions survive even as the converts adopt new ways of living under Islam.

In one of his photographs, Alvado features a small Christmas tree next to a green Saudi Arabian flag. The decorations belong to a Catholic-born Cuban woman who has been a Muslim for five years. “She still puts the Christmas tree up every year,” says Alvado. “The Muslim community in Cuba is really young.”

It’s unclear whether Castro’s death in November will affect Cuba’s religious revival. Castro had already passed the presidency on to his younger brother Raúl in 2008, though he continued to represent a powerful and uncompromising faction in Cuban politics.

“The hard-liner elements of the Cuban government lost their greatest mouthpiece,” says Andrew Otazo, executive director of Washington-based think tank the Cuba Study Group. Cubans will be watching anxiously to see whether Castro’s death will lead to reform or whether hard-liners—insecure about where they stand now—will crack down on religion. “Will there be more religious freedom or ability to practice your religion if you see fit? That’s the big question,” he says.

Explore Alvado’s work inside the world of Cuba’s Muslims below.


Muhammad Ali walks home under the Capitolio building, in the Habana Vieja quarter of La Habana. Ali, born Manuel, became Muslim 20 years ago, at a time when very few Cubans had had any exposure to the religion.JOAN ALVADO


A Muslim group prays in front of a home in a small, isolated village in the Baracoa province. After the family’s home was struck by Hurricane Matthew, other Muslims in the area began visiting to offer economic support.JOAN ALVADO


Rosalba Lamanier, a young Cuban girl who converted to Islam, joins her husband and friends in the streets of the Lawton quarter in La Habana. Dressing according to the Islamic religion can still be uncomfortable for some converts; Lamanier likes to cover her hair and shoulders to adhere to the religion, and tries to fuse the style with Cuban flair.JOAN ALVADO01_06_Cuba_SS_11Rolando Tamayo, 30, rests at home with his daughter. Rolando, who goes by Mustafa in Muslim environments, converted to Islam in 2012, and now is the Imam of the Cuban province of Sancti Spiritus.JOAN ALVADO


A Christmas tree is paired with an Islamic flag in this home. Most Cuban Muslims converted from Christianity and still inhabit some Christian customs.JOAN ALVADO


Boris Viana and another member of the Cuban Association for the Studies of Islam make their way across the street after a meeting. Many Cuban Muslims travel at length to attend religious gatherings due to the lack of temples.JOAN ALVADO


Lázara Molina, 53, lives with two of her children in the Alamar quarter of La Habana. Molina converted from Christianity to Islam two years ago, and one of her daughters followed suit while the other preferred the Afro-Cuban religion.JOAN ALVADO


Abu Duyanah Ali gives his wife a ride to work in the Playa District in downtown La Habana. Ali, born in La Habana, is the founder of the Cuban Association for the Study of Islam, one of the few Islamic groups in the country.JOAN ALVADO


Rosalba Lamanier joins her friend, Danay, and Danay’s son, in the Mosque of La Habana.JOAN ALVADO


Ahmed Agüero, a Muslim originally from Camagüey, Cuba’s third largest city, stops by the Malecón of La Habana, a 5-mile-long seawall, where he runs every morning.JOAN ALVADO


Under portraits of Che Guevara and Fidel Castro, Muhammad Ali waits with his grandson Dario for jujitsu classes in a gym in historic Old Havana, one of the densest parts of the city.JOAN ALVADO